Ceramic Tile

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● Material & Tool
Material: Portland cement, fine sand, tile.
Main Tools: saw with masonry blade, trowel, level, sponge/cloth.

●  Base treatment
Prior to installation, clean the wall base with brush and/or broom, and make it rough if it is too smooth. Moisture the base one day before installation, moisture it again just before installation to increase the adhesive strength of installation.

●  Marking
Determine joint width in between tiles, determine design requirement, and mark on the dry wall accordingly.

●  Tile treatment
ICOT tile is well fired; it’s not necessary to soak with water and can be applied on wall directly.

●  Mortar
1. Ingredients:
Cement: 325# common portland cement;
Fine sand (Sieve the sand before using; it is less than 2.5mm in grain size).

Bed mortar ratio

Cement 1 : Sand 3 (wooden trowel finish)

Setting mortar ratio

Cement 1 : Sand 2~2.5; Additive: methyl cellulose

Mounting thickness

5~7 mm (finish 3~5 mm)

2. Consistency: no dropping is fine for tile installation; a little stiff is required for joint grout installation.

●  Installation
1. Apply mortar onto the wall evenly. Working area is limited around 0.5 sq.meter ~ 1sq.meter for one
time to prevent mortar from hardening before completing installation as there is a sharp drop in
adhesion.
2.  Apply a thin layer of mortar on tile back; this is only for large tile which is more than 108×108mm.
3.  Press the tile or sheeted tiles against the mortar bed, pound the tile with trowel handle or rap the sheeted tiles with a wooden board till the mortar just squeezes out from all sides of the tiles. Care must be taken to tap tiles into place with sufficient force or they will later fall off, but be careful not to press too hard to make gaul.
4.   Remove excess mortar from the tile face before it hardens.

●  Jointing
1.  If temperature is lower than 3℃, or it is rainy or blustery, please do not perform jointing.
2.  Joint grout color may be slightly different subject to condition, such as climate, water quality and installing method, so trial test is necessary before actual application.
3.  Do not fill the joint immediately after applying the tile, please refer to the chart below. Jointing can then be performed depending on the hardness of the mortar.

Temperature

Proper time for filling the joints

Above 26℃

3 days after tile installation

18~26℃

3~7 days after tile installation

Below 18℃

7 days after tile installation

 

 




4.  Before filling the joint, make sure the joint is clean, tile surface and edge have no latex and water.
Clean water is required; Keep the container and other tools clean
5.  Mortar compound ratio is subject to joint width as follows:

Joint width

Compound Ratio (Cement : Sand)

Over 3 mm

1 : 0.5~1.5

Under 3 mm

1 : 0.2~0.5

6.  If you use ICOT JOINT GROUT, please mix the grout as follows:
Mix 25kg ICOT JOINT GROUT with 6~7kg clean water subject to the site humidity and condition. Put water into the container first, then put in joint grout powder, mix it with an agitator. The pot life of the mortar is 60 minutes. It should be wasted when it is over time, it is useless to re-add water & re-mix.
7.  Moisture the joint area as necessary before jointing, but do not moisture it if using a specific adhesive.
8.  There are two method to fill the joint with grout:
(1) Squeezing method: for tiles with high water absorption and rough surface.
Put the mortar into a plastic bag, open a small hold at the end of the bag, squeeze mortar from the bag hole against the joint till the joint is fully filled, press and finish the joint with joint trowel when the joint mortar becomes firm.
(2) Mopping method: for tiles with low water absorption and smooth surface for great efficiency. Jointing is done by mopping with a rubber trowel and then using a jointing trowel to press and finish it when the joint mortar becomes firm. Remove residue on tile surface about 30 minutes after jointing with wet sponge.
9.Joint depth should be 1/3 lower than tile surface.
10.At proper time, any dirt should be wiped off several times with a cloth after application of joint material.
11.Small installation test is recommended to confirm the detailed installation specification for large area installation to ensure actual installation meet the requirements of local standard and regulation.

●  Protection
1. Proper protection is necessary if there is possibility of the tiles coming into direct contact with sunlight or rain.
2. If installing tiles in the winter, insure that there is sufficient ventilation and, as much as possible, protect the surface from damage caused by freezing or sudden temperature changes. If there is a possibility of the ambient temperature dropping to below 0℃, temporary heating equipment should be installed to insure proper protection. If heating equipment is not available, tiles setting should be suspended.
3. If tiles are set overhead on an entrance, on the ceiling or the like, some sort of a wooden prop or support should be used to prevent the tiles from dropping off.
4. During installation, be careful to prevent any impact or shock to the tile surface, and allow proper protection of both the wall and the floor.
5. After installation, tiles must not be walked on or allowed to receive a shock for at least 3 days until the mortar has sufficiently hardened. If it is necessary to tread on the tiles before an elapse of 3 days, a walkway board or such should be used.
6. During installation, give proper protection to adjacent and other areas in order to keep the surfaces clean.

●  Clean up
1.  Clean the tile surface after jointing. Normally, water and brush should be used for cleaning to insure that no smudges remain on the tiles. Use solvent to remove adhesive or sealer deposits.
2. If it is hard to clean up with water, it should be removed with a 3% solution of industrial hydrochloric acid. Then, the hydrochloric acid should be washed off with water to insure that none remains on the surface. This procedure must be completed within 2 minutes to avoid color change of tiles.
3. Be sure the entire area is cleaned after installation is finished.